Suspended solid (SS), also named total suspended solid (TSS), is defined as the non-filterable solids in water and it is used as essential indicator of water quality, thus there’s rigorous SS allowable limitation of effluent in various industries. Besides, total dissolved solids (TDS), which is the total concentration of inorganic salts and small amounts of organic matter in water, can be determined by evaporating filtrate (i.e., filtered liquid) to dryness in a tared vessel. Both SS and TDS are important indicators in controlling water and wastewater treatment processes and monitoring stream quality.
Suspended solid test is operated with vacuum pump, filtration apparatus and standard glass fiber membrane filter, and with the aid of vacuum to remove residual liquid from solids and also accelerate the filtration process. Generally, a pump with modest vacuum is adequate for suspended solid test; nonetheless, a pump with deeper vacuum is highly recommended with turbid or high solid content water sample.
Total Suspended Solids (TSS) Method and Procedure
* This is not intended to be a standalone method and does not address all safety or quality control aspects that may be required. Please consult your local regulations to comply with all requirements.
- Collect your sample in a container.
- Connect your Rocker vacuum pump to the side arm of your vacuum flask.
- Seat your filter holder in the top of your vacuum flask or use a manifold for increased numbers of simultaneous samples and higher efficiency.
- Place a Rocker filter in the filter holder, wet it with a small amount of reagent water to set it, and secure the funnel to the base.
- Filter as much sample as is possible within a 10-minute span, up to 1 L. While the sample is filtering, record the pan ID and initial weight from the label on the pan. Record the total sample volume filtered.
- Wash the filter and collected solids with three successive 10 mL portions of reagent water. This will remove any dissolved solids trapped in and on the filter. Continue suction for about three minutes after filtration is complete.
- Place the filter back in its pan and place in a drying oven set at 104±1°C for at least one hour.
- Remove filters/pans from the oven and place in a desiccator until they reach room temperature.
- Weigh each filter on a balance to the nearest 0.0001 g and record the weight. Note: Do not include the pan in this step.
- Repeat steps 7 to 9 at least one more time and as many as are necessary to obtain a reading ±0.0005 g from the previous weight.
- TSS monitoring in river, lakes, reservoirs, saline waters, etc.
- TDS monitoring in surface water, ground water, potable water, etc.
- TSS monitoring in domestic and industrial wastewater.